Nutrition

 

Nutrition for the Athlete

 

 

Quick Facts…

 

  • Athletes achieve peak performance by training and eating a variety of foods.
  • Athletes gain most from the amount of carbohydrates stored in the body.
  • Fat also provides body fuel; use of fat as fuel depends on the duration of the exercise and the condition of the athlete.
  • Exercise may increase the athlete’s need for protein.
  • Water is a critical nutrient for athletes. Dehydration can cause muscle cramping and fatigue.

 

Becoming an elite athlete requires good genes, good training and conditioning and a sensible diet. Optimal nutrition is essential for peak performance. Nutritional misinformation can do as much harm to the ambitious athlete as good nutrition can help.

 

Carbohydrates

 

Athletes benefit the most from the amount of carbohydrates stored in the body. In the early stages of moderate exercise, carbohydrates provide 40 to 50 percent of the energy requirement. Carbohydrates yield more energy per unit of oxygen consumed than fats. Because oxygen often is the limiting factor in long duration events, it is beneficial for the athlete to use the energy source requiring the least amount of oxygen per kilocalorie produced. As work intensity increases, carbohydrate utilization increases.

 

Complex carbohydrates come from foods such as spaghetti, potatoes, lasagna, cereals and other grain products. Simple carbohydrates are found in fruits, milk, honey and sugar. During digestion, the body breaks down carbohydrates to glucose and stores it in the muscles as glycogen.

 

During exercise, the glycogen is converted back to glucose and is used for energy. The ability to sustain prolonged vigorous exercise is directly related to initial levels of muscle glycogen. The body stores a limited amount of carbohydrate in the muscles and liver. If the event lasts for less than 90 minutes, the glycogen stored in the muscle is enough to supply the needed energy. Extra carbohydrates will not help, any more than adding gas to a half-full tank will make the car go faster.

 

For events that require heavy work for more than 90 minutes, a high-carbohydrate diet eaten for two to three days before the event allows glycogen storage spaces to be filled. 

 

According to the Olympic Training Center in Colorado Springs, endurance athletes on a high-carbohydrate diet can exercise longer than athletes eating a low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet. Eating a high-carbohydrate diet constantly is not advised. This conditions the body to use only carbohydrates for fuel and not the fatty acids derived from fats.

 

Electrolyte beverages can be used if the athlete tolerates them, but other electrolytes are not essential until after the event. Experiment during training to find the best beverage for you.

 

Table 1: Sample menu of a high carbohydrate diet.

Food item

Calories

Grams
carbohydrate

Breakfast

8 ounces orange juice

120

28

1 cup oatmeal

132

23

1 medium banana

101

26

8 ounces low-fat milk

102

12

1 slice whole wheat toast

60

12

1 tablespoon jelly

57

15

Lunch

2-ounce slice ham

104

0

1 ounce Swiss cheese

105

1

2 slices whole wheat bread

120

25

1 leaf lettuce

1

0

1 slice tomato

3

1

8 ounces apple juice

116

30

8 ounces skim milk

85

12

2 cookies

96

14

Dinner

3 cups spaghetti

466

97

1 cup tomato sauce
with mushrooms

89
5

19
1

2 tablespoons Parmesan cheese

45

0

4 slices French bread

406

78

1 slice angel food cake

161

36

1/4 cup sliced strawberries

13

3

1/2 cup ice cream

133

16

Snack

16 ounces grape juice

330

83

6 fig cookies

386

81

TOTAL

3236

613

(75% of total calories)

 

Eating sugar or honey just before an event does not provide any extra energy for the event. It takes about 30 minutes for the sugar to enter the blood stream. This practice may also lead to dehydration. Water is needed to absorb the sugar into the cells. Furthermore, sugar eaten before an event may hinder performance because it triggers a surge of insulin. The insulin causes a sharp drop in blood sugar level in about 30 minutes. Competing when the blood sugar level is low leads to fatigue, nausea and dehydration.

 

A diet where 70 percent of calories comes from carbohydrates for three days prior to the event is sometimes helpful for endurance athletes.

 

Water

 

Water is an important nutrient for the athlete. Athletes should start any event hydrated and replace as much lost fluid as possible by drinking chilled liquids at frequent intervals during the event. Chilled fluids are absorbed faster and help lower body temperature. (See Table 2.)

 

Table 2: Recommendations for hydration.

Day before

Drink fluids frequently

Pre-event meal

2-3 cups water

2 hours before

2-2 1/2 cups water

1/2 hour before

2 cups water

Every 10-15 minutes during the event

1/2 cup cool (45-55 degrees) water

After event

2 cups fluid for each pound lost

Next day

Drink fluids frequently (it may take 36 hours to rehydrate completely).

 

Fats

 

Fat also provides body fuel. For moderate exercise, about half of the total energy expenditure is derived from free fatty acid metabolism. If the event lasts more than an hour, the body may use mostly fats for energy. Using fat as fuel depends on the event’s duration and the athlete’s condition. Trained athletes use fat for energy more quickly than untrained athletes. Consumption of fat should not fall below 15 percent of total energy intake because it may limit performance.  Athletes who are under pressures to achieve or maintain a low body weight are susceptible to using fat restriction and should be told that this will hinder their performance.

 

Protein

 

After carbohydrates and fats, protein provides energy for the body. Exercise may increase an athlete’s need for protein, depending on the type and frequency of exercise. Extra protein consumed is stored as fat. In the fully grown athlete, it is training that builds muscle, not protein per se. The ADA reports that a protein intake of 10 to 12 percent of total calories is sufficient. Most authorities recommend that endurance athletes eat between 1.2-1.4 grams protein per kg of body weight per day; resistance and strength-trained athletes may need as much as 1.6-1.7 grams protein per kg of body weight. (A kilogram equals 2.2 pounds.)

 

Japanese researchers demonstrated that “sports anemia” may appear in the early stages of training with intakes of less than 1 gram/kg of body weight per day of high quality protein. To calculate your protein needs, divide your ideal weight by 2.2 pounds to obtain your weight in kilograms. Then multiply kilograms by the grams of protein recommended.

 

A varied diet will provide more than enough protein as caloric intake increases. Furthermore, Americans tend to eat more than the recommended amounts of protein. Excess protein can deprive the athlete of more efficient fuel and can lead to dehydration. High-protein diets increase the water requirement necessary to eliminate the nitrogen through the urine. Also, an increase in metabolic rate can occur and, therefore, increased oxygen consumption. Protein supplements are not always recommended.

 

Vitamins and Minerals

 

Increased caloric intake through a varied diet ensures a sufficient amount of vitamins and minerals for the athlete. There is no evidence that taking more vitamins than is obtained by eating a variety of foods will improve performance. Thiamin, riboflavin and niacin (B vitamins) are needed to produce energy from the fuel sources in the diet. However, plenty of these vitamins will be obtained from eating a variety of foods. Carbohydrate and protein foods are excellent sources of these vitamins. Furthermore, the B vitamins are water soluble and are not stored in the body, so toxicity if not an issue.  Milk products not only increase the riboflavin level but also provide protein and calcium.

 

Minerals play an important role in performance. Heavy exercise affects the body’s supply of sodium, potassium, iron and calcium. Sweating during exercise increases the concentration of salt in the body.  Consuming salt tablets after competition and workouts is not advised as this will remove water from your cells, causing weak muscles.  Good sodium guidelines are to: 1) avoid excessive amounts of sodium in the diet and 2) beverages containing sodium after endurance events may be helpful. 

 

Eating potassium-rich foods such as oranges, bananas and potatoes throughout training and after competition supplies necessary potassium.

 

Iron carries oxygen via blood to all cells in the body and is another important mineral for athletes.  Athletes between 13 and 19 years old may have inadequate supplies of iron due to menstruation and strenuous exercise.

 

Calcium is an important nutrient for everyone as it is important in bone health and muscle function.  Choosing low-fat dairy products, provide the best source of calcium.

 

The Pre-Game Meal

A pre-game meal three to four hours before the event allows for optimal digestion and energy supply. Most authorities recommend small pre-game meals that provide 500 to 1,000 calories.

 

The meal should be high in starch, which breaks down more easily than protein and fats. The starch should be in the form of complex carbohydrates (breads, cold cereal, pasta, fruits and vegetables). They are digested at a rate that provides consistent energy to the body and are emptied from the stomach in two to three hours.

 

High-sugar foods lead to a rapid rise in blood sugar, followed by a decline in blood sugar and less energy. In addition, concentrated sweets can draw fluid into the gastrointestinal tract and contribute to dehydration, cramping, nausea and diarrhea. Don’t consume any carbohydrates one and a half to two hours before an event. This may lead to premature exhaustion of glycogen stores in endurance events.

 

Avoid a meal high in fats. Fat takes longer to digest as does fiber- and lactose-containing meals.

 

Take in adequate fluids during this pre-game time. Avoid caffeine (cola, coffee, tea) as it may lead to dehydration by increasing urine production.

 

Don’t ignore the psychological aspect of eating foods you enjoy and tolerate well before an event. However, choose wisely — bake meat instead of frying it, for example.

 

Some athletes may prefer a liquid pre-game meal, especially if the event begins within two or three hours. A liquid meal will move out of the stomach by the time the game begins. Remember to include water with this meal.

 

The Post-Game Meal

Regardless of age, gender or sport, the post-game competition meal recommendations are the same. (See Table 3.) Following a training session or competition, a small meal eaten within thirty minutes is very beneficial. The meal should be mixed, meaning it contains carbohydrate, protein, and fat. Protein synthesis is greatest during the window of time immediately following a workout and carbohydrates will help replete diminished glycogen stores. However, consume food within the 30 minute window may be difficult for athletes—they often experience nausea or lack of hunger.  Options to address this difficulty include:

 

  • Carbs you can drink that contain protein.  There are several liquid smoothies and beverages on the market that provide high protein and carbohydrates for replenishment.  One classic is chocolate milk.
  • If that is difficult, fruit, popsicles, oranges, bananas, bagels, melon, or apple slices all would be better than not consuming any food.

 

Many athletes turn to protein/amino-acid supplementation in the form of powders or pills post-workout.  These are unnecessary and have been linked to dehydration, hypercalciuria, weight gain, and stress on the kidney and liver.   Furthermore, any athletes consuming supplements in replacement of meals should consult with their doctor or a registered dietitian before continuing.

 

Maintain nutritional conditioning not only for athletic events, but all the time (See fact sheet 9.353, Dietary Guidelines for Americans). A pre-game meal or special diet for several days prior to competition cannot make up for an inadequate daily food intake in previous months or years.

 

 

 

Lifelong good nutrition habits must be emphasized. Combine good eating practices with a good training and conditioning program plus good genes, and a winning athlete can result!

 

Table 3: Two pre-event meal plans.

Pre-Event Meal Plan I, 2-3 hours prior
(approximately 500 calories)

Lean meat or protein equivalent

2 ounces

Fruit

1 serving (1/2 cup)

Bread or easily digestible carbohydrate

2 servings

Pre-Event Meal Plan II, 3 1/2 – 4 hours prior
(approximately 900 calories)

Cooked lean meat or protein equivalent

2 ounces

Fruit

1 serving (1/2 cup)

Pasta or baked potato

1 cup or 1 medium

Bread or carbohydrate substitute

2 servings

Low-fiber vegetable

1 serving (1/2 cup)

Fat spread

1 teaspoon

Dessert: Angel food cake or plain cookies

1 piece 2 cookies

 

 

 

References

Written by: J. Anderson, L. Young, S. Prior (12/10)

Colorado State University

 

  • Advances in Sports Medicine and Fitness, Volume 2, 1989.
  • Nutrition for Fitness and Sports, Melvin Williams; Brown, Benchmark, 1995.
  • Nutrition for the Recreational Athlete, Catherine Jackson, editor; CRC Press, 1995.
  • Krause’s Food and Nutrition Therapy, 12th e, 2008